by: Costas Rodopoulos [ ]
Originally published on:
Korean Seil Model’s range of figures does cover a wide spectrum of eras already The latest releases show this .One of them is Sh-54020 a Crusader from the Kingdom of Jerousalem sculpted by Yuri Serevryakov and boxart painting by Kim Man Jin.
Seil’s pretty effective and classy boxing is here as usual . A louxurious black sturdy hard carton box, with 2 thick dark grey sheets of protective foam hold all 10 pieces of material . 8 white metal pieces and a piece of metal rod and a generous amount of lead foil to make a small flag. Outside of this a dark glossy paper sleeve with 2 different pictures of the painted boxart, makes the final wrapping.
Whenever you open a Seil Model figure kit you are amazed by the shiny metal surface of all pieces . The quality of the metal parts is really in top standards, with smooth surface, and no cleaning need , than a pet with the fine steel wool to polish even more the figure. Almost invinsible moldlines will disappear at first touch .
There is also a paper sheet included with 4 printed photographs of all sides of the figure and there are more of them on the web site of the company.
Torso with feet
Left arm - hand
2 pieces for Right arm – sword holding hand
End of spear
1 piece of metal rod
Sheet of lead foil
Quality and Detail
The pose is kind of dramatic with the Crusader having raised hir left hand holding the flag over his head, and holding the sword with the righ with the shield hanging on his back.
Sculpting level is high , and “clean” and that’s normal from a high skilled and experienced sculptor like Yuri.. All items are clearly defined from the others and the lines of the figure are nice. The chain mail armor is one of the finest and most delicate you have ever seen. So don’t even think to use a motor tool with brush to polish it . Slowly and soft touch with the fine steel wool is ok .Rest of equipment like spear , sword and shield and detals like leather belts helmet are beautifully sculpted .
Dry fit showed that he pieces match perfectly and you will not have any kind of assembly problems
This is not a very hard to paint figure , but you will have to “play” with leathers and chain mail as well as with standard clothing and freehand painting some crosses on the shield and the small flag. .There are many options for alternative painting schemes , than the boxart , while the boxart suggestion is a cool one .
The base is a good piece and with some additions you can improve it more
Conclusion – Final Verdict
One more Seil beautiful 54mm figure with nice quality of material ,and interesting theme from skilled Yuri Serebriakov .
Historical Notes – Sources
Foundation and early history
The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks. Very soon, however, the capture, or recapture as the participants saw it, of the Holy Land became the main objective. The kingdom came into being with the capture of Jerusalem in July of 1099, the climax of the crusade. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine and one of the main leaders of the crusade, was chosen as the first king. He refused, however, to take this title, saying that no man should wear a crown where Christ had worn his crown of thorns; instead, he took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("Defender of the Holy Sepulchre"). The foundation of the kingdom was secured with the defeat of Fatimid Egypt at the Battle of Ascalon one month later.
There was initially some uncertainty as to the nature of the kingdom. Some crusaders thought it should be ruled as a theocracy by the Pope, an idea the papal legate Daimbert of Pisa tried to impose in 1100. Godfrey may have supported this, and would have exchanged a theocratic kingdom in Jerusalem for a secular one in Cairo if he could conquer Egypt, but during his short reign the rudiments of a secular state were established against Daimbert's efforts. A Catholic church hierarchy was established, replacing local Eastern Orthodox and Syrian Orthodox authorities: a Latin Patriarch was set up in Jerusalem, and had numerous suffragan archbishops and bishops. Godfrey, however, died in 1100, and his brother and successor, Baldwin I, more definitely supported a secular monarchy in the western European style. Baldwin was not as scrupulous as his brother, and had himself crowned King of Jerusalem (though Daimbert, now Latin Patriarch, refused to crown him in Jerusalem itself, and the ceremony took place in Bethlehem).
The Latin population of the kingdom was always small; although a steady stream of settlers and new crusaders continually arrived, most of those who fought in the First Crusade simply went home. The Latins were little more than a superstrate over the native Muslim and Syrian population. But Jerusalem came to be known as Outremer, the French word for "overseas," and as new generations grew up in the kingdom, they also began to think of themselves as native easterners, rather than immigrants. Thus, in many senses, they behaved and thought more like "orientals" (Syrians) than like Western Europeans of their day. They often learned to speak Greek, Arabic, and other eastern languages, and married Greeks or Armenians: as the chronicler Fulcher of Chartres wrote, "we who were Occidentals now have been made Orientals".
Fulcher, a participant in the First Crusade, continued his chronicle up to 1127. Thereafter there is no eyewitness to events in Jerusalem until William of Tyre, archbishop of Tyre and chancellor of Jerusalem, who began writing around 1167 and died around 1184, although he includes much information about the First Crusade and the intervening years from the death of Fulcher to his own time. From the Muslim perspective, there is Usamah ibn Munqidh, a soldier and frequent ambassador from Damascus to Jerusalem and Egypt, whose memoirs, Kitab al i'tibar, include lively accounts of crusader society in the east. Other information can be gathered from travellers such as Benjamin of Tudela and Ibn Jubayr.
Loss of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade
Guy proved a disastrous ruler. His close ally Raynald of Chatillon, the lord of Oultrejourdain and of the fortress of Kerak, provoked Saladin into open war by attacking Muslim caravans and threatening to attack Mecca itself. To make matters worse, Raymond had allied with Saladin against Guy and had allowed a Muslim garrison to occupy his fief in Tiberias. Guy was on the verge of attacking Raymond before Balian of Ibelin and the nobles' party effected a reconciliation in 1187, and the two joined together to attack Saladin at Tiberias. However, Guy and Raymond could not agree on a proper plan of attack, and on July 4, 1187, the army of the Kingdom was utterly destroyed at the Battle of Hattin. Raynald was executed and Guy was imprisoned in Damascus. Over the next few months Saladin easily overran the entire Kingdom, save for the port of Tyre, which was ably defended by the newcomer Conrad of Montferrat.
The subsequent fall of Jerusalem in October shocked Europe, resulting in the Third Crusade, which arrived in 1189, led by Richard Lionheart and Philip Augustus (Frederick Barbarossa had died along the way). Due to the efforts of Richard, most of the coastal cities of Syria were recovered, especially Acre, although only after a lengthy siege during which Patriarch Heraclius, Queen Sibylla, and many others died in an epidemic. Guy of Lusignan, who had been refused entry to Tyre when Conrad was defending the city, now had no legal claim to the kingship, and the succession passed to Isabella. Conrad shrewdly argued that Isabella and Humphrey's marriage was illegal, as she had been only 11 years old at the time, and with the support of Philip and the French crusaders he was able to have the marriage annulled. Conrad then married her himself, but ruled the rump state only briefly before being murdered by the Hashshashin. Isabella was quickly re-married to Count Henry II of Champagne. Guy was compensated with the newfound Kingdom of Cyprus, after Richard had captured the island on the way to Acre.
Meanwhile, Richard and Philip quarrelled, and Philip returned home. Richard defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in 1191 and the Battle of Jaffa in 1192, but could not recover Jerusalem or any of the inland territory of the kingdom. The crusade came to an end peacefully, with the Treaty of Ramla negotiated in 1192; Saladin allowed pilgrimages to be made to Jerusalem, allowing the crusaders to fulfill their vows, after which they all returned home. The native crusader barons set about rebuilding their kingdom from Acre and the other coastal cities.
The Kingdom of Acre
For the next hundred years, the Kingdom of Jerusalem clung to life as a tiny kingdom hugging the Syrian coastline. Its capital was moved to Acre and at best, it included only a couple of other significant cities (Beirut, Tyre), as well as suzerainty over Tripoli and Antioch. Saladin died in 1193, and his sons fought with each other as much as they did with the crusader kingdom. Henry of Champagne died accidentally in 1197 and Isabella married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, Guy's brother. A Fourth Crusade was planned after the failure of the Third, but it resulted in the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and the crusaders involved never arrived in the kingdom.
For the period from 1229 to 1268, the monarch resided in Europe and usually had a larger realm to pursue or take care of. Kings of Jerusalem were represented by their baillis and regents. The title of King of Jerusalem was inherited by Conrad IV of Germany, son of Frederick II and Yolande, and later by his own son Conradin. With the death of Conradin the kingdom was inherited by King Hugh III of Cyprus. The territory descended into squabbling between the nobles of Cyprus and the mainland, between the remnant of the (now unified) County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, whose rulers also vied for influence in Acre, and especially between the Italian trading communities, whose quarrels erupted in the so-called "War of Saint Sabas" in Acre in 1257. After the Seventh Crusade, no organized effort from Europe ever arrived in the kingdom, although in 1277 Charles of Anjou bought the title of "King of Jerusalem" from a pretender to the throne. He never appeared in Acre but sent a representative, who, like Frederick II's representatives before him, was rejected by the nobles of Outremer.
In their later years, the Crusaders' hopes rested with the Mongols, who were thought to be sympathetic to Christianity. Although the Mongols invaded Syria on several occasions, they were repeatedly defeated by the Mamluks, most notably at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The Mamluks under Sultan Baibars took their revenge on the practically defenseless kingdom, taking its cities one by one until, in 1291, Acre, the last stronghold, was taken by the Sultan Khalil.
Thereafter, the Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased to exist on the mainland, but the kings of Cyprus for many decades hatched plans to regain the Holy Land. For the next seven centuries, up to today, a veritable multitude of European monarchs have used the title of King of Jerusalem. See Kings of Jerusalem.
Arms of Kingdom of Jerusalem
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which has gone through several different varieties of a cross Or (gold) on an argent (silver) field, is a famous violation of or exception to the rule of tincture in heraldry, which prohibits the placement of metal on metal or colour on colour. It is one of the earliest known coats of arms. The crosses are Greek crosses, one of the many Byzantine influences on the kingdom.
• Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. Frances Rita Ryan. University of Tennessee Press, 1969.
• William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943.
• Philip K. Hitti, trans., An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades; Memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al i'tibar). New York, 1929
• Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge, 2000.
• P.M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1989.
• John L. La Monte, Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100-1291. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932.
• Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford University Press, 1965 (trans. John Gillingham, 1972).
• Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. London, 1972.
• Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions. Oxford University Press, 1980.
• Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277. The Macmillan Press, 1973.
• Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania, 1991.
• Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed., The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford, 2002.
• Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades. Cambridge University Press, 1951-54.
• Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades. Madison, 1969-1989 (available online).
• Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291) - Article in the Catholic Encyclopedia
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Jerusalem"